Saturday, November 05, 2011

lab report: sprinkler system



INTRODUCTION
Fire sprinkler system is a system of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards and installed to control or extinguish fires. A sprinkler system works as the water from a network of overhead pipes is released through nozzles that open automatically with the rise in temperature. The basic components of sprinkler system are the sprinklers, system piping and a dependable water resource. Most systems also require an alarm and system control valves.

Sprinklers may be required to be installed to reduce potential property losses or business interruption. There are two installation systems for the sprinkler which is wet pipe system and dry pipe system. By a wide margin, wet pipe sprinkler systems are installed more often than all other types of fire sprinkler systems. They also are the most reliable, because they are simple, with the only operating components being the automatic sprinklers. When an automatic sprinkler is exposed for a sufficient time to a temperature at or above the temperature rating, the heat sensitive element releases allowing water to flow.

Dry pipe systems are installed in spaces in which the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system, rendering the system inoperable. Dry pipe systems are most often used in unheated buildings, in parking garages, in outside canopies attached to heated buildings. Dry pipe systems are the second most common sprinkler system type.

There are several types of sprinkler head;
  1. Quartzoid Bulb Type Head
  2. Fusible Soldered Strut Type Head 
  3. Duraspeed Soldered Type Head 
Common building used Quartzoid Bulb Type Head with red colour of liquid. For the red colour, the temperature required to shatter the glass is about 68˚C.

OBJECTIVE 
  1. To understand how the fire sprinkler systems operate.
  2. To recognize a various types of sprinkler head. 

APPARATUS
Fire sprinkler system, stopwatch, lighter, fire starter 

METHODOLOGY
  1. Automatic sprinkler head system unit has been prepared.
  2. A fire starter was burned by using lighter.
  3. Stopwatch was started when finish placed the fire starter.
  4. The stopwatch was stopped when the sprinkler head is shattered the glass, the valve was opened and sprayed to the water.

RESULT

TEST

1

2

COLOR OF SPRINKLER

RED (68°C)

RED (68°C)

PRESSURE IN THE PIPE

60 psi

60 psi

TIME

37s

60s










DISCUSSIONS
The experiment that we done show that the time was taken start from the burning of a fire starter on steel net below the sprinkler head until the sprinkler head is shatter the glass. The pressure gauge reading and the pressure in the pipe were setting before the starting of burning.

For the first test, the time is shorter than the second test that is 37 s for the first while the second test is 60 s. The different of the time is because of the fire burning below the sprinkler head for the first test is much larger than the second test.

From this experiment, it shows that the Red color type of sprinkler is suitable used in office building. This is because the minimum heat that will shatter the glass is 68°C. It is not suitable to use in factory building. This is because the heat in the factory is higher than in office building.

Besides that, it shows that the efficiency of liquid in the glass is important to make sure the glass was shattered in the right temperature. When the temperature was achieved its limit, the liquid in the glass will expand and make the glass shattered. So that, the glass will lost its function to stop the water flow from the pipe to let it out and spreading by the sprinkler head to decrease the burning.

CONCLUSION
From the experiment that we have done, we can get know about the types of sprinkler. Actually, the sprinklers have many types and each type have their own characteristic. The color in the sprinkler can be determining the degree celcius of heated. For example, blue color (141°C), green (93°C), red (68°C) and others. We are also know that the sprinkler important to use anywhere for our safety. It is especially for the building like office, hospital, store, factory, school, or others place that involved human safety and things.

The different place have difference sprinkler. It is because; the sprinkler will put in the suitable place. For example, the red color of sprinkler not suitable to put in the factory or cooking place such restaurant. It is because; the degree celcius of heated is minimum 68°C. While, in the factory or restaurants have the higher of heat. So, the suitable colors that can use in those places are blue color. So, for the conclusion we can conclude that the sprinkler will detect the heat using their own colors.

RECOMMENDATION
  1. The fire sprinkler system must be checked regularly by scheduled maintenance
  2. Every building must install the sprinkler system as their fire fighting system
  3. The appropriate colour of liquid must be suitable with the function of the place. 

REFERENCES
  1. Building Services and Equipment, Second Edition
  2. Building Services ECM 216 Text Book
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_sprinkler
  4. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-2295132/Review-on-the-design-and.html
  5. http://www.articlealley.com/article_249368_27.html
  6. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-automatic-sprinkler-system.htm 

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